Hydraulic oil will flash on introduction of heat and start a fire, especially hydraulic oil spread
All light and sound signals must be understood by all.
All communications must be relevant and clear.
All electrical switchboards must be protected from dust, especially coal and grain dust which
Fig:self unloader BUFFALO
Protective clothing as appropriate must be worn at all times during cargo operations as
Safety Measures Incorporated in the System
- Safety helmet with strap.
- Steel toe safety shoes.
- Leather working gloves
- Working coverall.
- Clear safety goggles.
- Dust mask.
- Safety torch.
- Carry strap and protective cover for walkie-talkie set.
- Audio Visual alarms:-
Red Light – indicates shut down
Yellow Light – indicates alarm
‘O’ speed shut down for motors: - indicates if there is pulley slippage relative to the left
This avoids friction damage to the underside of the belt.
- Tunnel lights:-
Indicates the load as follows:
Red light - overload
Amber - correct Load
Green - low load
- The ‘emergency stops’ and ‘pull cords’:- These switches when activated, stop the system
sequentially. They are to be activated in an emergency situation, or when personnel are
working on the system.
- Transfer hopper pressure switches:-
These switches are activated by a build up in pressure due to clogging in a transfer hopper,
and stop the hold conveyor.
- The Listometer lights:- These lights are fitted on the foremost and loop-line. They indicate
the vessels list as follows:-
Maintaining the vessel in an upright condition is critical, and lists in excess of 1 degree must be
- Port List - 1 Red = ½ degree
- Port List - 2 Red = 1 degree
- Port List - 2 Red Flashing = more than 1 ½ degrees
- Starboard List - 1 Green = ½ degree
- Starboard List - 2 Green = 1 degree
- Starboard List - 2 Green Flashing = more than 1 ½ degrees
Lists of more than 1 degree can lead to the following problems:-
- Faults in the tracking of the belts
- The boom slewing system hydraulics may exceed the design pressures, and the relief valves
will lift, stopping the boom.
There are no heat or smoke sensing systems in the loop-tunnel, and regular fire
watches must be arranged especially during repairs. These watches must be carried out at
least two to six hours, following completion of any hot work in the loop and tunnel areas.
Note that there are no heat or smoke sensors in the Loop-Tunnel, and therefore
frequent fire rounds have to be made by the persons assigned, especially when
the system is in operation, and when carrying out repairs. Fire rounds are to be
taken at least two and six hours after completion of any hot-work in the Loop
and Tunnel areas.
Precautions when Bunkering During Loading/Discharging:
Notices must be posted and warnings issued to all concerned to the effect that bunker
hoses are connected.
Alterations in draft and trim due to bunkering must be closely monitored, to ensure that an
adequate depth of water at the berth is maintained, and that excessive trim which would adversely
affect the boom and conveyor belts, is avoided. Cargo operations
During cargo operations, gangways should be periodically inspected for cleanliness, tightness of handrail lines, deployment angle, safety net placement, and distance of the bottom step plate from the wharf. Any dangerous conditions on the gangway should be corrected.
It is good practice to keep a log at the top of the gangway, so that the longshoremen can sign on when they board the ship and sign off when they leave. The log also serves a practical purpose, as it enables the crew to check who is on board and to ensure that all of the longshoremen have left the ship when cargo operations are completed.
The main deck should be inspected at regular intervals (including areas where longshoremen are or will be working and also access routes to these areas) to make sure that there is no oil, grease or any foreign substance on deck. Any open manhole covers should be closed or properly guarded and guards or cautionary signs should be placed around any obstructions on deck that may present a trip hazard.
Crewmembers should ensure that any ship equipment or areas under their active control during cargo operations do not pose a danger to the longshoremen working near the equipment or passing through the area controlled by them.
Crew should also make deck log entries of the periodic inspections of the gangway and main deck confirming they are clean and in good working condition. They should also note the time of any cleaning/maintenance on the gangway or main deck, specifying the area cleaned. Reference publications :
Fire in cargo holds & emergency preparedness
Shipboard hazards & bulk carriers safety guideline
Health hazards for personnel working in a dusty condition onboard
Operation of sea going bulk carriers involved numerous hazards . Careful planning and exercising due caution for all critical shipboard matters are important . This site is a quick reference to international shipping community with guidance and information on the loading and discharging of modern bulk carriers so as to remain within the limitations as specified by the classification society.
SOLAS – 74 + amendments
- Merchant Shipping Notice M673
- MARPOL 73/78
- BCH/IBC Code
- Vessel Response Plan
- Guide to Ship Fire Fighting BR4007
- BC Code
- International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk
- Bulk Carrier Practice
It is vital to reduce the likelihood of over-stressing the ship's structure and also complying with all essential safety measures for a safe passage at sea. Our detail pages contain various bulk carrier related topics that might be useful for people working on board and those who working ashore in the terminal. For any remarks please
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"A ship which is intended primarily to carry dry cargo
in bulk, including such types as ore carriers and
- Self unloader components
Function of loop & bucket belt elevators
Self unloaders various cargo handling gears
- Various type boom conveyor belts - How the belt sytem practically works ?
Dealing with self unloaders stalled lift belt
Conveyor belt construction & troubleshoot guide
Conveyor belt installation guide
Conveyor belt repair & maintenence guide
- Preventing conveyor belt fire onboard self unloading bulk carriers
- Cargo work safety precautions
- Various bulk cargoes - free flow ability
- Various bulk cargoes & dealing with cargo hang ups
- Navigation in
Ice & safety precautions
- Dust suppression procedure & environment protection
- Preparations for cargo planning, handling & stowage
- Maintaining safe stability onboard self-unloading bulk carriers
- Procedure for bulk cargo handling prior to and during loading
- Loading operations - voyage orders, draft restrictions, various grades and rates
- Loading sequence and other related considerations
- Preparations for discharging & related guideline
- Safety precautions for boom operation
- Directing gate operation, gate problems & crew duties
- Cargo holds/ tunnels cleaning, maintenance and check items
- Procedure for transporting coal on self- unloading bulk carriers